COINTELPRO: The FBI's Secret Counter Intelligence Program
COINTELPRO (an acronym for Counter Intelligence Program) was a series of covert and often illegal projects conducted by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation aimed at investigating and disrupting dissident political organizations within the United States. The FBI used covert operations from its inception; however the formal COINTELPRO operations took place between 1956 and 1971. The FBI motivation at the time was "protecting national security, preventing violence, and maintaining the existing social and political order." Targets included groups suspected of being subversive, such as communist and socialist
organizations, the women's rights movement; people suspected of
building a "coalition of militant black nationalist groups" ranging
from the Black Panther Party and Republic of New Afrika, to "those in the non-violent civil rights movement," such as Martin Luther King, Jr. and others associated with the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the Congress on Racial Equality (CORE), and other civil rights groups; "White Hate Groups" including the Ku Klux Klan and National States' Rights Party; a broad range of organizations lumped together under the title "New Left" groups, including Students for a Democratic Society, the National Lawyers Guild, the Weathermen, almost all groups protesting the Vietnam War,
and even individual student demonstrators with no group affiliation;
and nationalist groups such as those "Seeking Independence for Puerto
Rico." The directives governing COINTELPRO were issued by FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover,
who ordered FBI agents to "expose, disrupt, misdirect, discredit, or
otherwise neutralize" the activities of these movements and their
COINTELPRO began in 1956 and was designed to "increase factionalism, cause disruption and win defections" inside the Communist Party U.S.A. (CPUSA). However, the program was soon enlarged to include disruption of the Socialist Workers Party (1961), the Ku Klux Klan (1964), the Nation of Islam, the Black Panther Party (1967), and the entire New Left
socio-political movement, which included antiwar, community, and
religious groups (1968). A later investigation by the Senate's Church Committee
(see below) stated that "COINTELPRO began in 1956, in part because of
frustration with Supreme Court rulings limiting the Government's power
to proceed overtly against dissident groups..." Congress and several court cases
later concluded that the COINTELPRO operations against communist and
socialist groups exceeded statutory limits on FBI activity and violated
Constitutional guarantees of freedom of speech and association.
The program was secret until 1971, when an FBI field office in Media, PA was burglarized by a group of left-wing radicals calling themselves the Citizens' Commission to Investigate the FBI. Several dossiers of files were taken and the information passed to news agencies, many of which initially refused to publish the information. Within the year, Director Hoover
declared that the centralized COINTELPRO was over, and that all future
counterintelligence operations would be handled on a case-by-case basis.
Further documents were revealed in the course of separate lawsuits filed against the FBI by NBC correspondent Carl Stern, the Socialist Workers Party,
and a number of other groups. A major investigation was launched in
1976 by the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with
Respect to Intelligence Activities of the United States Senate,
commonly referred to as the "Church Committee" for its chairman, Senator Frank Church of Idaho. However, millions of pages of documents remain unreleased, and many released documents are entirely censored.
In the Final Report of the Select Committee COINTELPRO was castigated in no uncertain terms:
- "Many of the techniques used would be intolerable in a democratic
society even if all of the targets had been involved in violent
activity, but COINTELPRO went far beyond that...the Bureau conducted a
sophisticated vigilante operation aimed squarely at preventing the
exercise of First Amendment rights of speech and association, on the
theory that preventing the growth of dangerous groups and the
propagation of dangerous ideas would protect the national security and
The Church Committee documented a history of FBI directors' using the agency for purposes of political repression as far back as World War I,
through the 1920s, when they were charged with rounding up "anarchists
and revolutionaries" for deportation, and then building from 1936
Range of targets
In an interview with the BBC's Andrew Marr, MIT professor of linguistics and political activist Noam Chomsky
talks about the purpose and the targets of COINTELPRO saying,
"COINTELPRO was a program of subversion carried out not by a couple of
petty crooks but by the national political police, the FBI, under four
administrations...by the time it got through, I won't run through the
whole story, it was aimed at the entire new left, at the women's
movement, at the whole black movement, it was extremely broad. Its
actions went as far as political assassination." 
According to the Church Committee:
- While the declared purposes of these programs were to protect the
"national security" or prevent violence, Bureau witnesses admit that
many of the targets were nonviolent and most had no connections with a
foreign power. Indeed, nonviolent organizations and individuals were
targeted because the Bureau believed they represented a "potential" for
violence -- and nonviolent citizens who were against the war in Vietnam
were targeted because they gave "aid and comfort" to violent
demonstrators by lending respectability to their cause.
- The imprecision of the targeting is demonstrated by the inability
of the Bureau to define the subjects of the programs. The Black
Nationalist program, according to its supervisor, included "a great
number of organizations that you might not today characterize as black
nationalist but which were in fact primarily black." Thus, the
nonviolent Southern Christian Leadership Conference was labeled as a
Black Nationalist-"Hate Group."
- Furthermore, the actual targets were chosen from a far broader
group than the titles of the programs would imply. The CPUSA program
targeted not only Communist Party members but also sponsors of the
National Committee to Abolish the House Un-American Activities
Committee and civil rights leaders allegedly under Communist influence
or not deemed to be "anti-Communist". The Socialist Workers Party
program included non-SWP sponsors of antiwar demonstrations which were
cosponsored by the SWP or the Young Socialist Alliance, its youth
group. The Black Nationalist program targeted a range of organizations
from the Panthers to SNCC to the peaceful Southern Christian Leadership
Conference, and included every Black Student Union and many other black
student groups. New Left targets ranged from the SDS to the
InterUniversity Committee for Debate on Foreign Policy, from Antioch
College ("vanguard of the New Left") to the New Mexico Free University
and other "alternate" schools, and from underground newspapers to
students' protesting university censorship of a student publication by
carrying signs with four-letter words on them.
The FBI claims that it no longer undertakes COINTELPRO or
COINTELPRO-like operations. However, critics claim that agency programs
in the spirit of COINTELPRO targeted groups like the Committee in Solidarity with the People of El Salvador, the American Indian Movement, Earth First! and the Anti-Globalization Movement.
According to attorney Brian Glick in his book War at Home, the FBI used four main methods during COINTELPRO:
- 1. Infiltration: Agents and informers did not merely spy on
political activists. Their main purpose was to discredit and disrupt.
Their very presence served to undermine trust and scare off potential
supporters. The FBI and police exploited this fear to smear genuine
activists as agents.
- 2. Psychological Warfare From the Outside: The FBI and police used
myriad other "dirty tricks" to undermine progressive movements. They
planted false media stories and published bogus leaflets and other
publications in the name of targeted groups. They forged
correspondence, sent anonymous letters, and made anonymous telephone
calls. They spread misinformation about meetings and events, set up
pseudo movement groups run by government agents, and manipulated or
strong-armed parents, employers, landlords, school officials and others
to cause trouble for activists.
- 3. Harassment Through the Legal System: The FBI and police abused
the legal system to harass dissidents and make them appear to be
criminals. Officers of the law gave perjured testimony and presented
fabricated evidence as a pretext for false arrests and wrongful
imprisonment. They discriminatorily enforced tax laws and other
government regulations and used conspicuous surveillance,
"investigative" interviews, and grand jury subpoenas in an effort to
intimidate activists and silence their supporters.
- 4. Extralegal Force and Violence: The FBI and police threatened,
instigated, and themselves conducted break-ins, vandalism, assaults,
and beatings. The object was to frighten dissidents and disrupt their
movements. In the case of radical Black and Puerto Rican activists (and
later Native Americans), these attacks—including political
assassinations—were so extensive, vicious, and calculated that they can
accurately be termed a form of official "terrorism."
In 1969 the FBI special agent in San Francisco wrote Hoover that his
investigation of the Black Panther Party (BPP) revealed that in his
city, at least, the Black nationalists were primarily feeding breakfast
to children. Hoover fired back a memo implying the career ambitions of
the agent were directly related to his supplying evidence to support
Hoover's view that the BPP was "a violence-prone organization seeking
to overthrow the Government by revolutionary means".
Hoover was willing to use false claims to attack his political
enemies. In one memo he wrote: "Purpose of counterintelligence action
is to disrupt the BPP and it is immaterial whether facts exist to substantiate the charge."
In one particularly controversial incident, civil rights worker Viola Liuzzo
was killed in 1965 by a shot from a car in which four Ku Klux Klansmen
were riding; one of the Klansmen was an FBI informant. Afterward
COINTELPRO spread false rumors that Liuzzo was a member of the Communist Party and abandoned her children to have sexual relationships with African Americans involved in the civil rights movement.
Hoover ordered preemptive action...."to pinpoint potential
troublemakers and neutralize them before they exercise their potential
The Final report of the Church Committee concluded:
- "Too many people have been spied upon by too many Government
agencies and too much information has been collected. The Government
has often undertaken the secret surveillance of citizens on the basis
of their political beliefs, even when those beliefs posed no threat of
violence or illegal acts on behalf of a hostile foreign power. The
Government, operating primarily through secret informants, but also
using other intrusive techniques such as wiretaps, microphone "bugs",
surreptitious mail opening, and break-ins, has swept in vast amounts of
information about the personal lives, views, and associations of
American citizens. Investigations of groups deemed potentially
dangerous -- and even of groups suspected of associating with
potentially dangerous organizations -- have continued for decades,
despite the fact that those groups did not engage in unlawful activity.
Groups and individuals have been harassed and disrupted because of
their political views and their lifestyles. Investigations have been
based upon vague standards whose breadth made excessive collection
inevitable. Unsavory and vicious tactics have been employed --
including anonymous attempts to break up marriages, disrupt meetings,
ostracize persons from their professions, and provoke target groups
into rivalries that might result in deaths. Intelligence agencies have
served the political and personal objectives of presidents and other
high officials. While the agencies often committed excesses in response
to pressure from high officials in the Executive branch and Congress,
they also occasionally initiated improper activities and then concealed
them from officials whom they had a duty to inform.
- Governmental officials -- including those whose principal duty is
to enforce the law --have violated or ignored the law over long periods
of time and have advocated and defended their right to break the law.
- The Constitutional system of checks and balances has not adequately
controlled intelligence activities. Until recently the Executive branch
has neither delineated the scope of permissible activities nor
established procedures for supervising intelligence agencies. Congress
has failed to exercise sufficient oversight, seldom questioning the use
to which its appropriations were being put. Most domestic intelligence
issues have not reached the courts, and in those cases when they have
reached the courts, the judiciary has been reluctant to grapple with
Contentions that COINTELPRO tactics continue
While COINTELPRO was officially terminated in April 1971, suspicions persist that the program's tactics continued informally.
Critics have suggested that subsequent FBI actions indicate that
post-COINTELPRO reforms in the agency did not succeed in ending the
program's tactics. “Counterterrorism” guidelines implemented during the Reagan administration have been described as undercutting these reforms, allowing a return to earlier tactics. Some radical groups accuse factional opponents of being FBI informants or assume the FBI is infiltrating the movement.
Several authors have accused the FBI of continuing to deploy
COINTELPRO-like tactics against radical groups after the official
COINTELPRO operations were ended. Several authors have suggested the American Indian Movement
(AIM) has been a target of such operations. A few authors go further
and allege that the federal government intended to acquire uranium
deposits on the Lakota tribe's reservation land, and that this motivated a larger government conspiracy against AIM activists on the Pine Ridge reservation. Others believe COINTELPRO continues and similar actions are being taken against activist groups.
Some scholars have argued that with respect to Native Americans,
COINTELPRO should be understood within a historical context in which
"Native Americans have been viewed and have viewed the world themselves
through the lens of conspiracy theory."
Other authors note that while there are conspiracy theories related to
COINTELPRO, the issue of ongoing government surveillance and repression
is nonetheless real.
- Blackstock, Nelson (1988). Cointelpro: The FBI's Secret War on Political Freedom. Pathfinder Press. ISBN 0-87348-877-6.
- Carson, Clayborne; Gallen, David, editors (1991). Malcolm X: The FBI File. Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 0-88184-758-5.
- Cunningham, David (2004). There’s Something Happening Here: The New Left, The Klan, and FBI Counterintelligence. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23997-0.
- Davis, James Kirkpatrick (1997). Assault on the Left. Praeger Trade. ISBN 0-275-95455-2.
- Garrow, David (2006). The FBI and Martin Luther King, Jr. (Revised ed.). Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08731-4.
- Glick, Brian (1989). War at Home: Covert Action Against U.S. Activists and What We Can Do About It. South End Press. ISBN 0-89608-349-7.
- Halperin, Morton; Berman, Jerry; Borosage Robert; Marwick, Christine (1976). The Lawless State: The Crimes Of The U.S. Intelligence Agencies. ISBN 0-14-004386-1.
- Olsen, Jack (2000). Last Man Standing: The Tragedy and Triumph of Geronimo Pratt. Doubleday. ISBN 0-38549-367-3.
- Perkus, Cathy (1976). Cointelpro. Vintage.
- Theoharis, Athan, Spying on Americans: Political Surveillance from Hoover to the Huston Plan (Temple University Press, 1978).
- John Drabble, "The FBI, COINTELPRO-WHITE HATE and the Decline of Ku
Klux Klan Organizations in Mississippi, 1964-1971," Journal of
Mississippi History, 66:4, (Winter 2004).
- John Drabble, "The FBI, COINTELPRO-WHITE HATE and the Decline Ku
Klux Klan Organizations in Alabama, 1964-1971," Alabama Review,
- John Drabble, "To Preserve the Domestic Tranquility:” The FBI,
COINTELPRO-WHITE HATE, and Political Discourse, 1964-1971," Journal of
American Studies, 38:3 (August 2004): 297-328
U.S. Government reports
- U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Internal Security. Hearings on Domestic Intelligence Operations for Internal Security Purposes. 93rd Cong., 2d sess, 1974.
- U.S. Congress. House. Select Committee on Intelligence. Hearings on Domestic Intelligence Programs. 94th Cong., 1st sess, 1975.
- U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Government Operations. Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. Hearings on Riots, Civil and Criminal Disorders. 90th Cong., 1st sess. - 91st Cong. , 2d sess, 1967-1970.
- U.S. Congress. Senate. Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. Hearings — The National Security Agency and Fourth Amendment Rights. Vol. 6. 94th Cong., 1st sess, 1975.
- U.S. Congress. Senate. Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. Hearings — Federal Bureau of Investigation. Vol. 6. 94th Cong., 1st sess, 1975.
- U.S. Congress. Senate. Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. Final Report — Book II, Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans. 94th Cong., 2d sess, 1976.
- U.S. Congress. Senate. Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. Final Report — Book III, Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports on Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans. 94th Cong., 2d sess, 1976.
- Category:COINTELPRO targets
- Police Brutality
- Agent provocateur
- Franklin, H. Bruce, targeted by COINTELPRO
- Brown, H. Rap, targeted by COINTELPRO
- Hampton, Fred, targeted by COINTELPRO
- Viola Liuzzo, murdered by a shot from a car used by four Ku Klux Klansmen, one of whom was a COINTELPRO informant
- NSA call database
- Operation Mockingbird
- Gary Rowe, COINTELPRO informant accused (and acquitted) of involvement in the murder of civil rights activist Viola Liuzzo
- Starsky, Morris, early target of COINTELPRO
- Red squad - Police intelligence/anti-dissident units, later operated under COINTELPRO
- The COINTELPRO Papers
- Security culture
- ^ a b c d "Quick Facts". Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved on 2008-08-07.
- ^ a b c Churchill, Ward, and Jim Vander Wall, (1990), The COINTELPRO Papers: Documents from the FBI’s Secret Wars Against Domestic Dissent, Boston: South End Press, pp. xii, 303.
- ^ Various Church Committee reports reproduced online at ICDC: Final Report, 2A; Final Report,2Cb; Final Report, 3A; Final Report, 3G. Various COINTELPRO documents reproduced online at ICDC: CPUSA; SWP; Black Nationalist; White Hate; New Left; Puerto Rico.
- ^ a b COINTELPRO Revisited - Spying & Disruption - IN BLACK AND WHITE: THE F.B.I. PAPERS
- ^ "A Huey P. Newton Story - Actions - COINTELPRO", PBS. Retrieved on 2008-06-23.
- ^ a b "SUPPLEMENTARY DETAILED STAFF REPORTS ON INTELLIGENCE ACTIVITIES AND THE RIGHTS OF AMERICANS". United States Senate. Retrieved on 2006-08-14.
- ^ See, for example, Hobson v. Wilson, 737 F.2d 1 (1984); Rugiero v. U.S. Dept. of Justice, 257 F.3d 534, 546 (2001).
- ^ A Short History of FBI COINTELPRO, retrieved July 13, 2007.
- ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oG24vg8js4o&feature=related
- ^ Gelbspan, Ross, (1991), Break-Ins, Death Threats, and the FBI: The Covert War Against the Central America Movement, Boston: South End Press.
- ^ a b Ward Churchill and James Vander Wall, Agents of Repression: The FBI's Secret Wars against the Black Panther Party and the American Indian Movement, 1988, Boston, South End Press.
- ^ Karen Pickett, "Earth First! Takes the FBI to Court: Judi Bari and Darryl Cherney’s Case Heard after 12 Years," Earth First Journal, no date.
- ^ Alexander Cockburn; Jeffrey St. Clair (1998). Whiteout: The CIA, Drugs and the Press. Verso, 69. ISBN 1859841392.
- ^ FBI document, 19 July 1966, DeLoach to Sullivan re: "Black Bag" Jobs.
- ^ http://www.icdc.com/~paulwolf/cointelpro/churchfinalreportIIIf.htm, retrieved August 14, 2005.
- ^ FBI document, 27 May 1969, Director FBI to SAC San Francisco, available at the FBI reading room
FBI document, 16 September 1970, Director FBI to SAC's in Baltimore,
Detroit, Los Angeles, New Haven, San Francisco, and Washington Field
Office available at the FBI reading room
- ^ "Viola Liuzzo", Detroit News, April 9, 2004
- ^ "INTELLIGENCE
ACTIVITIES AND THE RIGHTS OF AMERICANS BOOK II, FINAL REPORT OF THE
SELECT COMMITTEE TO STUDY GOVERNMENTAL OPERATIONS WITH RESPECT TO
INTELLIGENCE ACTIVITIES UNITED STATES SENATE (Church Committee)". United States Senate. Retrieved on May 11, 2006.
- ^ "Tapped Out Why Congress won't get through to the NSA.". Slate.com. Retrieved on May 11, 2006.
- ^ David Cunningham. There's Something Happening Here: The New Left, the Klan, and FBI.
University of California Press, 2005: "However, strong suspicions
lingered that the program's tactics were sustained on a less formal
basis—suspicions sometimes furthered by agents themselves, who
periodically claimed that counterintelligence activities were
continuing, though in a manner undocumented within Bureau files.";
Hobson v. Brennan, 646 F.Supp. 884 (D.D.C.,1986)
- ^ Bud Schultz, Ruth Schultz. The Price of Dissent: Testimonies to Political Repression in America.
University of California Press, 2001: "Although the FBI officially
discontinued COINTELPRO immediately after the Pennsylvania disclosures
"for security reasons," when pressed by the Senate committee, the
bureau acknowledged two new instances of "Cointelpro-type" operations.
The committee was left to discover a third, apparently illegal
operation on its own."
- ^ Athan G. Theoharis, et al. The FBI: A Comprehensive Reference Guide.
Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999: "More recent controversies have
focused on the adequacy of recent restrictions on the Bureau's domestic
intelligence operations.. Disclosures of the 1970s that FBI agents
continued to conduct break-ins, and of the 1980s that the FBI targeted
CISPES, again brought forth accusations of FBI abuses of power — and
raised questions of whether reforms of the 1970s had successfully
exorcised the ghost of FBI Director Hoover."
- ^ Bud Schultz, Ruth Schultz. The Price of Dissent: Testimonies to Political Repression in America.
University of California Press, 2001: : "The problem persists after
Hoover…."The record before this court," Federal Magistrate Joan Lefkow
stated in 1991, "shows that despite regulations, orders and consent
decrees prohibiting such activities, the FBI had continued to collect
information concerning only the exercise of free speech."
- ^ Mike Mosedale, "Bury My Heart," City Pages, Volume 21 - Issue 1002 - Cover Story - February 16, 2000
- ^ Weyler, Rex. Blood of the Land: The Government and Corporate War Against First Nations.
- ^ Matthiessen, Peter, In the Spirit of Crazy Horse, 1980, Viking.
- ^ a b Woidat, Caroline M. The Truth Is on the Reservation: American Indians and Conspiracy Culture, The Journal of American Culture 29 (4), 2006. Pages 454–467
- ^ McQuinn, Jason. "Conspiracy Theory vs Alternative Journalism", Alternative Press Review, Vol. 2, No. 3, Winter 1996
- ^ Horowitz, David. Johnnie's Other O.J., September 1, 1997. FrontPageMagazine.com.
Woidat, Caroline M. The Truth Is on the Reservation: American Indians
and Conspiracy Culture, The Journal of American Culture 29 (4), 2006.
Chip Berlet, “The X-Files Movie: Facilitating Fanciful Fun, or Fueling
Fear and Fascism? Conspiracy Theories for Fun, Not for False Prophets,”
1998, Political Research Associates, http://www.publiceye.org/conspire/x-files.html;
Chip Berlet and Matthew N. Lyons, 1998, "One key to litigating against
government prosecution of dissidents: Understanding the underlying
assumptions," Parts 1 and 2, Police Misconduct and Civil Rights Law Report (West Group), 5 (13), (January–February): 145–153; and 5 (14), (March–April): 157–162. Also available in revised form online: .
- "Me and My Shadow": A History of the FBI's Covert Operations and COINTELPRO - Part 1. 34:21 minute Real Audio. Produced by Adi Gevins, Pacifica Radio. 1976. Rebroadcast by Democracy Now! Wednesday, June 5, 2002. Retrieved May 12, 2005.
- "Me and My Shadow": A History of the FBI's Covert Operations and COINTELPRO - Part 2. 13:43 minute Real Audio. Produced by Adi Gevins, Pacifica Radio. 1976. Rebroadcast by Democracy Now! Thursday, June 6, 2002. Retrieved May 12, 2005.
- COINTELPRO videos on African American History Channel
- Paul Wolf's COINTELPRO website, a detailed reference site. Retrieved April 19, 2005.
- COINTELPRO STILL LIVES by Sista Shiriki Unganisha
The Untold American Story - presented to U.N. World Conference Against
Racism 2001 by the U.S. Congressional Black Caucus
- Nation of Islam website's section on COINTELPRO, includes an assortment of documents, links and references.
- The Judi Bari case, COINTELPRO in the 1990s. Retrieved April 19, 2005.
- COINTELPRO: the Sabotage of Legitimate Dissent, What Really Happened, June 5, 1998.
- Fake Black Panther Party coloring book distributed by the FBI
- COINTELPRO-WHITE HATE Operation Against the Ku Klux Klan
 U.S. Government reports
Final Report of the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. United States Senate, 94th Congress, 2nd Session, April 26 (legislative day, April 14), 1976. [AKA "Church Committee Report"]. Archived on COINTELPRO sources website. Transcription and html by Paul Wolf. Retrieved April 19, 2005.
- Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans, Book II
- I. Introduction and Summary
- II. The Growth of Domestic Intelligence: 1936 to 1976
- III. Findings
- (A) Violating and Ignoring the Law
- (B) Overbreadth of Domestic Intelligence Activity
- (C) Excessive Use of Intrusive Techniques
- (D) Using Covert Action to Disrupt and Discredit Domestic Groups
- (E) Political Abuse of Intelligence Information
- (F) Inadequate Controls on Dissemination and Retention
- (G) Deficiencies in Control and Accountability
- IV. Conclusions and Recommendations
- Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports, Book III
- COINTELPRO: The FBI's Covert Action Programs Against American Citizens
- Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Case Study
- The FBI's Covert Action Program to Destroy the Black Panther Party
- The Use of Informants in FBI Intelligence Investigations
- Warrantless FBI Electronic Surveillance
- Warrantless Surreptitious Entries: FBI "Black Bag" Break-ins And Microphone Installations
- The Development of FBI Domestic Intelligence Investigations
- Domestic CIA and FBI Mail Opening
- CIA Intelligence Collection About Americans: CHAOS Program And The Office of Security
- National Security Agency Surveillance Affecting Americans
- Improper Surveillance of Private Citizens By The Military
- The Internal Revenue Service: An Intelligence Resource and Collector
- National Security, Civil Liberties, And The Collection of Intelligence: A Report On The Huston Plan
Web pages and other documents:
U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Internal Security. Hearings on
Domestic Intelligence Operations for Internal Security Purposes. 93rd
Cong., 2d sess, 1974.
U.S. Congress. House. Select Committee on Intelligence. Hearings on
Domestic Intelligence Programs. 94th Cong., 1st sess, 1975.
U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Government Operations. Permanent
Subcommittee on Investigations. Hearings on Riots, Civil and Criminal
Disorders. 90th Cong., 1st sess. - 91st Cong. , 2d sess, 1967-1970.
U.S. Congress. Senate. Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations
with Respect to Intelligence Activities. Hearings --
Security Agency and Fourth Amendment Rights.
Vol. 6. 94th Cong., 1st sess, 1975.
U.S. Congress. Senate. Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations
with Respect to Intelligence Activities. Hearings -- Federal Bureau of
Investigation. Vol. 6. 94th Cong., 1st sess, 1975.
U.S. Congress. Senate. Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations
with Respect to Intelligence Activities. Final Report -- Book II,
Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans. 94th Cong., 2d sess,
U.S. Congress. Senate. Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations
with Respect to Intelligence Activities. Final Report -- Book III ,
Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports on Intelligence Activities and the
Rights of Americans. 94th Cong., 2d sess, 1976.
Bamford, James, The Puzzle Palace (Penguin Press, 1983).
Blackstock, Nelson, COINTELPRO: The FBI's Secret War on Political Freedom
Buitrago, Ann Mari and Leon Andrew Immermann, Are You Now or Have You
Ever Been in the FBI FILES: How to Secure and Interpret Your FBI Files
(Grove Press Inc., 1981)
Churchill, Ward and Jim Vander Wall, Agents of Repression: The FBI's
Secret Wars Against the Black Panther Party and the American Indian Movement
(South End Press, 1988).
Central Intelligence Agency,
and publication date unknown)
Churchill, Ward and Jim Vander Wall, The COINTELPRO Papers: Documents
From the FBI's Secret Wars Against Dissent in the United States (South
End Press, 1990).
Donner, Frank J.,The Age of Surveillance: The Aims and Methods of
America's Political Intelligence System (Knopf, 1980).
Donner, Frank J., Protectors of Privilege: Red Squads and Police
Repression in Urban America (University of California Press, 1990).
Donner, Frank J., The Un-Americans (Ballantine Books, 1961).
Garrow, David J., The FBI and Martin Luther King, Jr.: From "SOLO" to
Memphis (Norton, 1981).
Gelbspan, Ross, Break-ins, Death Threats and the FBI: The Covert War
Against the Central America Movement (South End Press, 1991).
Gentry, Curt, J. Edgar Hoover: The Man and the Secrets (W.W. Norton &
Company, 1991) (excerpt on
the discovery of the mob)
Goldstein, Robert Justin, Political
Repression in Modern America (Schenkman, 1978).
Haines, Gerald K. and David A. Langbart, Unlocking the Files of the FBI:
A Guide to its Records and Classification System (Scholarly Resources,
Hoover, J. Edgar, Masters of Deceit (Pocket Books, 1959) (excerpt:
Jayco, Margaret, FBI on Trial: The victory in the Socialist Workers Party
Suit against government spying (Pathfinder Press, 1988).
Johnson, Loch, A Season of Inquiry: The Senate Intelligence Investigation
(University of Kentucky Press, 1985).
Lowenthal, Max, The Federal Bureau of Investigation (William Sloan
Associates, Inc., 1950).
Marx, Gary T., Under Cover: Police Surveillance in America
(University of California Press, 1988).
Matthiessen, Peter, In the Spirit of Crazy Horse (Viking Press, 1991)
O'Reilly, Kenneth, Hoover and the Un-Americans, (Temple University
Press, 1983) (Excerpt from Chapter 8,
O'Reilly, Kenneth, Racial Matters: The FBI's Secret File on Black
America, 1960-1972 (Free Press, 1989).
The Age of McCarthyism: A Brief
History with Documents
(St. Martin's Press, 1994)
Sorrentino, Frank M., Ideological Warfare: The FBI's Path Toward Power
(Associated Faculty Press, 1985).
Sullivan, William C., The Bureau: My Thirty Years in Hoover's FBI
Swearingen, M. Wesley, FBI Secrets: An Agent's Expose (South End
Press, 1995) (excerpt:
The logistics of a black bag
Theoharis, Athan, Spying on Americans:
Political Surveillance from Hoover to the Huston Plan (Temple University
Press, 1978) (Chapter 5 -
Ungar, Sanford J., FBI: An Uncensored Look Behind the Walls (Little,
Brown and Company, 1975).
Articles and Websites
1960s and COINTELPRO: In Defense of Paranoia
(NameBase NewsLine, No. 10, July-September 1995)
The Public-Private Partnership
Centro para la Investgación y Promoción de Derechos Civiles
(FBI files on Puerto Rican activists)
Domestic Terrorism: Notes on
the State System of Oppression
(A revised version of the introduction to Nelson Blackstock's COINTELPRO,
The Covert War Against Native
Wages of COINTELPRO Still
Evident in Omaha Black Panther Case
The FBI ... Past, Present and
COINTELPRO Revisited - Spying &
America's Secret Police: FBI
COINTELPRO in the 1990s
Index to FBI Agents and
COINTELPRO: The FBI War Against
Leonard Peltier, Native
Maoist International Movement,
Black Panther Newspaper
Prison Activist Resource Center,
Political Prisoners and POW's
in the US
What Really Happened?
Solomon, Norman, and Jeff Cohen,
Nothing Vague About FBI Abuse:
Here Are the Dossiers
(online document collection)
Some Call it Murder
Judi Bari Suit Reveals
COINTELPRO Against Earth First!
The Shadow, Issue #37.
Wolf, Paul et al,
COINTELPRO: The Untold American
CBC report to UNHCHR Mary Robinson at the World Conference Against Racism,
Durban, South Africa (Sept. 1, 2001)
The Federal Bureau of
Lee, Lee Lew, All Power to the People! The Black Panther Party and
Beyond (Video, Electronic News Group, 1997).
Scholarly Resources, Inc., COINTELPRO: The FBI's Counterintelligence
Program (microfilm series containing about 50,000 pages of FBI
documents, providing much of the material for the cointel.org website).